Clomifene is prescribed to help you to get pregnant if you are not ovulating properly. It will be prescribed for a maximum of six treatment cycles. Most women who respond to treatment do so within three treatments. Side-effects tend to be mild, but you should speak with your doctor as soon as possible if you get abdominal pain or discomfort, or if you have any problems with your eyesight. Clomifene is used to treat infertility in women who are not ovulating properly. Ovulation (the release of eggs) is in part controlled by hormones, called gonadotrophins, which stimulate the activity of the ovaries. The gonadotrophins are made by the pituitary gland, pass into the bloodstream and then travel to the ovaries. 50 mg PO q Day initially for 5 days If no ovulation, treatment can be repeated as early as 30 days after previous therapy Dosage can be increased to 100 mg only in patients who do not respond to first course Body as a whole: Fever, tinnitus, weakness Cardiovascular: Arrhythmia, chest pain, edema, hypertension, palpitation, phlebitis, pulmonary embolism, shortness of breath, tachycardia, thrombophlebitis Central nervous system: Migraine headache, paresthesia, seizure, stroke, syncope Dermatologic: Acne, allergic reaction, erythema, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, hypertrichosis, pruritus, urticaria Genitourinary: Endometriosis, ovarian cyst (ovarian enlargement or cysts could, as such, be complicated by adnexal torsion), ovarian hemorrhage, tubal pregnancy, uterine hemorrhage; reduced endometrial thickness Hepatic: Transaminases increased, hepatitis, pancreatitis Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, back pain, myalgia Neoplasms: Liver (hepatic hemangiosarcoma, liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma); breast (fibrocystic disease, breast carcinoma); endometrium (endometrial carcinoma); nervous system (astrocytoma, pituitary tumor, prolactinoma, neurofibromatosis, glioblastoma multiforme, brain abscess); ovary (luteoma of pregnancy, dermoid cyst of the ovary, ovarian carcinoma); trophoblastic (hydatiform mole, choriocarcinoma); miscellaneous (melanoma, myeloma, perianal cysts, renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, tongue carcinoma, bladder carcinoma) Psychiatric: Anxiety, irritability, mood changes, psychosis Visual disorders: Abnormal accommodation, cataract, eye pain, macular edema, optic neuritis, photopsia, posterior vitreous detachment, retinal hemorrhage, retinal thrombosis, retinal vascular spasm, temporary or prolonged loss of vision, possibly irreversible Metabolism disorders: Hypertriglyceridemia Other: Leukocytosis, thyroid disorder Careful attention should be given to selection of candidates for therapy; pelvic examination is necessary prior to treatment and before each subsequent course Uterine fibroids, pituitary or ovarian failure may occur Risk of ovarian enlargement & ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS); transient liver function test abnormalities suggestive of hepatic dysfunction, which may be accompanied by morphologic changes on liver biopsy, reported in association with OHSS, which is a medical event distinct from uncomplicated ovarian enlargement; death due to hypovolemic shock, hemoconcentration, or thromboembolism has occurred; if enlargement of ovary occurs, additional therapy should not be given until ovaries have returned to pretreatment size, and dosage or duration of next course should be reduced; ovarian enlargement and cyst formation associated with therapy usually regresses spontaneously within a few days or weeks after discontinuing treatment; potential benefit of subsequent therapy in these cases should exceed risk Potential for multiple births, especially at 100 mg dosage Risk of visual disturbance (like scotoma & photopsia); patients should be warned that visual symptoms may render activities such as driving a car or operating machinery more hazardous than usual, particularly under conditions of variable lighting; while etiology of visual symptoms is not yet understood, patients with any visual symptoms should discontinue treatment and have complete ophthalmological evaluation carried out promptly Cases of hypertriglyceridemia reported; preexisting or family history of hyperlipidemia and use of higher than recommended dose and/or longer duration of treatment are associated with risk of hypertriglyceridemia; periodic monitoring of plasma triglycerides is recommended in patients with preexisting or family history of hyperlipidemia; pretreatment screening of triglyceride levels is recommended in patients initiating therapy Cases of pancreatitis reported Prolonged use of clomiphene citrate tablets USP may increase risk of a borderline or invasive ovarian tumor Use in pregnant women is contraindicated, as treatment does not offer benefit in this population; to avoid inadvertent administration during early pregnancy, appropriate tests should be utilized during each treatment cycle to determine whether ovulation and/or pregnancy occurs; patients should be evaluated carefully to exclude ovarian enlargement or ovarian cyst formation between each treatment cycle; the next course of therapy should be delayed until these conditions have been excluded Available human data from epidemiologic studies do not show apparent cause and effect relationship between clomiphene citrate periconceptual exposure and an increased risk of overall birth defects, or any specific anomaly It is not known whether drug is excreted in human milk; because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if drug is administered to a nursing woman; in some patients, therapy may reduce lactation Half-Life elimination: 5-7 days Onset: Within 5-10 days Peak plasma time 6.5 hours Bioavailability: Readily absorbed from GI tract Metabolism: Enterohepatically circulated Excretion: feces 37-51%; small amount in urine The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.
Less common effects (1-10% of people) include visual symptoms (blurred vision, double vision, floaters, eye sensitivity to light, scotomata), headaches, vasomotor flushes (or hot flashes), light sensitivity and pupil constriction, abnormal uterine bleeding and/or abdominal discomfort. Clomifene can lead to multiple ovulation, hence increasing the chance of twins (10% of births instead of ~1% in the general population) and triplets. Some studies have suggested that clomifene citrate if used for more than a year may increase the risk of ovarian cancer. The incidence of fetal and neonatal abnormalities for patients on clomifene for fertility is similar to that seen in the general population. There is no data to suggest a higher rate of congenital anomalies or spontaneous abortions after using this drug. Compared to letrozole, another drug used for ovarian stimulation, a study found no significant difference in the rate of overall abnormalities, but found that congenital cardiac anomalies was significantly higher in the clomifene group compared to the letrozole group. Clomifene is a nonsteroidal SERM that inhibits estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, inhibiting negative feedback of estrogen on gonadotropin release, leading to up-regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Clomid is a derivative of diphenyl ethylene stilbene and depending on its target tissues, it functions either as an estrogen agonist or an estrogen antagonist. Essentially, Clomiphene Citrate, Clomid is a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM). SERMs in their own right are anti-estrogens, substances which inhibit the production, use, or effects of estrogens. While Clomid is the trademark name used in common practice, the International Nonproprietary Name given to the compound is Clomifene. The United States Adopted Name calls it Clomiphene. Clomid is also popularly known by the trade names, Androxal and Omifin. Clomid has been in medical use since the late 1960s.
Clomiphene is used as a fertility medicine in some women who are unable to become pregnant. Clomiphene probably works by changing the hormone balance of the body. In women, this causes ovulation to occur and prepares the body for pregnancy. Clomiphene may also be used for other conditions in both Clomiphene Clomid is a drug prescribed to stimulate ovulation in women with ovulatory dysfunction who are not pregnant, do not have abnormal bleeding or ovarian cysts, and have normal liver function. Side effects, drug interactions, and dosing information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.